Koy Sanjaq (KS): The text of your own Jews from Koy Sanjaq, citizen given that on 1951 in Israel

Koy Sanjaq (KS): The text of your own Jews from Koy Sanjaq, citizen given that on 1951 in Israel

Pointers arises from Robert Hoberman (personal communications). Which is apparently generally representative of one’s Jewish languages away from many other places of the part too, including Aqra and you can Rawanduz.

Although not, inside dialect you will find a highly unusual alter off h so you’re able to h on the 3rd person only one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’

Azerbaijan (Azer): The language of Jews away from Iranian Azerbaijan, as well as teams during the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you may Yuksekova. Info is out of Garbell (1965).

Halabja (Hala): The words of your Jews from Halabja towards the Iran-Iraq edging. This is very nearby the Jewish dialects of one’s other locations of the area, together with Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you can Panjwin. Guidance is inspired by my personal notes.

We’re going to examine this type of languages for twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you may lexical standards. Following the Hetzron (1976, 98), we have selected just innovations while the criteria to have classification. I have picked an effective disproportionate amount of morphological conditions, therefore should let them have special weight, once more after the Hetzron, however, almost every other shared designs could well be thought to be well.

Notice in addition to the much harder conservation and also insertion of inside the Koy Sanjaq reported because of the Hoberman (1985)

As we compare new languages of NENA we will make an effort to influence this new the total amount that the new dialects express a definite development which differs from Turoyo and Mandaic. At the same time, we will get a hold of bundles regarding isoglosses inside NENA.

(1) Be concerned may be penultimate in every the brand new NA dialects, in addition to Turoyo and you may Mandaic however on about three easternmost Jewish languages, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and Halabja, which generally stress the final syllable. These languages look, like this, as with a lot more (Garbell 1965), to display an abnormally strong influence from Kurdish.

(2) Most of the NENA https://www.datingranking.net/de/college-dating-de/ languages have combined h and you may x. From inside the Hertevin as a result, h, and you may every-where otherwise it’s x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you may dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]an effective ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you will +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)

Each other Turoyo and you will Mandaic preserve separate h and you can x. Some NENA languages has reintroduced h because the a borrowing regarding Kurdish otherwise Arabic or of Traditional Syriac or Hebrew.(5) Although not, the latest passed on words continuously shows x. Including, for the Tisqopa you’ll find lent Arabic terms, including sahabi ‘friend’, that have h, but passed down terminology for example laxma ‘bread’ consistently tell you x. (6)

(3) All the NENA languages except Hertevin and Zakho have forfeit most era from passed down. For example, in the Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ add up to Syriac arb a great and you will afra. During the Hertevin along with Zakho, passed down is actually continuously ?: Hertevin thus?a beneficial ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 189). In lot of almost every other dialects most are maintained as the ?, and you can, from the people, is finished entirely. Some languages possess reintroduced borrowed off Arabic or Kurdish. Such, Halabja features ayza ‘good’.

(4) Inside the earlier languages off Aramaic, as in Tiberian Hebrew, t turned into [Theta] just after good vowel. So it alternation could have been lexicalized when you look at the NENA, that have possibly t or [Theta] dispersed because of whole paradigms, if or not preceded by a good vowel or not. Such, into the Aradhin brand new verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, also [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Subsequent, in a number of dialects the latest phoneme [Theta] possess undergone extra change. In a few languages [Theta] provides matched back into t, and also in other people it is s if not l.(7) In one dialect, Jilu, it is h and then come removed except in the beginning of a phrase. The three easternmost Jewish languages share the shocking move out of [Theta] to 1. The results of those transform is visible in the phrase ‘house’ and this looks in almost any dialects just like the be:[Theta]an excellent (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you may besa (Sanandaj Religious).

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